Afghan media have faced difficulties since the Taliban took power in Kabul on 15 August 2021.
Outlets have endured severe restrictions, an economic crisis and waning Western support.
There is growing self-censorship and editorial appeasement of the Taliban. Freedom of expression has largely disappeared.
Music is no longer broadcast and women rarely appear in the media. Female TV presenters must wear a face covering.
There were 9.2 million internet users by July 2022, comprising 22% of the population (Worldinternetstats.com).
Sone of the following outlets have moved their broadcasting operations outside Afghanistan since the Taliban takeover:
- Hasht-e Sobh (“Daily 8am”) – private, secular daily
- Hewad (“Homeland”) – government-sponsored daily
- Anis (“Companion”) – government-sponsored daily
- Mandegar (“Lasting”) – private, daily
- Weesa (“Trust”) – private daily
- Arman-e Melli (“National Aspiration”) – private, daily
- The Daily Afghanistan – private
- Daily Outlook – private, English-language
- Afghanistan Times – officially-funded, English-language
- Arman FM – Afghanistan’s first private radio station, on FM in Kabul and other cities
- Arakozia FM – private, operated by Moby Group
- Radio Afghanistan – run by state broadcaster National Radio-TV Afghanistan (NRTA); also operates Kabul Radio FM 93 in the capital and 32 provincial stations
- Salam Watandar – non-profit production house, has 47 partner stations
- Kilid Group (TKG) – US/EU-funded public media group comprising 11 local radios
- National Television Afghanistan – run by state broadcaster (RTA), via terrestrial relays and satellite
- Tolo TV – leading private network, operated by Moby Group; via provincial relays and satellite
- TOLOnews – Moby Group’s news network, via satellite; website in English
- Lemar TV – private, Pashto-language sister station of Tolo TV
- Ariana TV – private, broadcasts terrestrially in many provinces and via satellite to Asia, Europe and North America
- Shamshad TV – private, available terrestrially in major cities
- 1 TV Kabul – private, since September 2021, it has been broadcasting from Germany
- Bakhtar News Agency – state-run, English-language pages
- Pajhwok Afghan News – private, English-language pages
- Afghan Islamic Press – private, based in Peshawar, Pakistan; English-language pages
- TOLOnews – part of Moby Group – private, English-language pages
- Khaama Press – private, English-language pages